Bilateral integration is the ability to use both sides of your body together in a coordinated way. You need to have bilateral coordination in all parts of your body, such as your legs for walking, and your eyes for seeing, but when talking about fine motor skills, we focus more on the bilateral upper extremity, or both arms, hands and trunk working together in a coordinated way.
Reading and Writing
There are many visual skills that are required when reading and writing. During reading, not only must you see things clearly, but you must have good eye movement skills, sustain clarity over time and keep the book still. Integrating the eye movements with higher cognitive processing including paying attention, remembering, processing and utilizing the visual information perceived is essential to good reading skills.
Handwriting requires visual memory, visual motor, visual perception and visual attention.
Dyspraxia is a term that refers to a specific disorder in the area of motor skill development. People with dyspraxia have difficulty planning and completing intended fine motor tasks. It is estimated that as many as 6% of all children show some signs of dyspraxia, and in the general population, about 70% of those affected by dyspraxia are male.
Dyspraxia can affect different areas of functioning, varying from simple motor tasks such as waving goodbye to more complex tasks like brushing teeth.
Dyslexia is a language based learning disability. Dyslexia refers to a cluster of symptoms, that result in people having difficulties with specific language skills, particularly reading. Students with dyslexia often experience difficulties with both oral and written other language skills, such as writing, and pronouncing words and writing.
Oculomotor Dysfunction occurs when there is the absence or defect of controlled, voluntary, and purposeful eye movement. .Oculomotor Dysfunction affects reading, sports, balance, depth perception as well as most visually related tasks. Oculomotor Dysfunction is not a condition that is “out grown”. Instead, over time, an individual develops compensatory techniques – such as turning of the head while reading, rather than the head remaining stationary while the eyes move across the page of text.Signs of oculomotor dysfunction include skipping words when reading, poor reading and poor reading comprehension.